The World In Transition

I. The End of the Cold War

A. The Brezhnev Years

    1. Military Might- Buildup of missiles that could destroy the earth over and over. They also ordered the build up of non-conventional weapons like guns and ammo and the like. The USA was not the only fear. USSR had China to contend with as well. He feared losing his strangle hold on satellite nations. When USA went to Vietnam, Brezhnev went to the Middle East and Africa.

    2. Trouble at Home- The buildup would bring economic turmoil. Workers were so regimented they lacked the drive for production. Equipment was used so much so for the military buildup many of the nations other machinery fell into disrepair. Even the black market deteriorated.

    3. "Truce" in the Cold War

        a. Détente- ease of relations

        b. SALT- Strategic Arms Limitation Agreement

B. The United States

    1. The Reagan-Bush Era- Were elected on the effects of 1970's- Budget deficits. Brought on Defense buildup, tax reductions and curbing inflation.

    2. The Clinton Years- Spurred on by domestic policy, a strong economy

    3. American- Soviet Relations- Seen once as an "Evil Empire" slowly curbed a once heated Cold War

C. Gorbachev's USSR

    1. Gorbachev's Domestic Reforms

        a. Glasnost- Openness and Perestroika- Restructuring

    2. Gorbachev's Foreign Policy- Reagan and Thatcher dominated over that of the USSR

        a. Military was draining economy

        b. Nuclear treaties

        c. Iron Curtain is diminished

    3. New Challenges

        a. Bureaucracy- Impatience and decline

    4. Rise of Yeltsin

D. The Soviet Breakup

    1. A Dangerous Course- Saw the rollback of glasnost, the tightening of the Soviet press and a Police crackdown for opposition

    2. The Coup Attempt- Hard-liners and secret police staged a military coup that was defeated ? was this a Gorbachev failure (?)

E. The New Commonwealth

    1. Military Issues- Nuclear arsenal

    2.Economic and Social Changes- The gap between the rich and poor begins to grow leading to crime and violence (mob).  Money the was infused in the economy was spent (inappropriately)

II The Crumbling Wall

A. The Rise of Solidarity- With the appointment of Pope John Paul II and the election of Lech Walesa the two worked towards better means of life.  USSR was diminished in power and control.  The Iron Curtain was falling.  Democracy was rampant to those who never had it (how to?)

B. A Year of Miracles

    1. Soviet Policies- prior too

    2. Collapse of Communism- Economy, Military, Impatience

    3. The Wall's Fall- November 9, 1989

    4. Violence in Romania- Ceausescu death

C. New Leaders in a New Age- Kohl (Germany), Havel (Czechoslovakia) among others

D. Facing Challenges

    1. Economy

    2. Prosperity

    3. Poverty gap

    4. Missile gap

    5. Satellites go democratic

E. Rise of Nationalism- Unifying forces of language and culture proved to be a double edge sword.  Many people cramped into small quarters geographically were now at odds with one another.  Love of country lent itself to cultural and ethic backgrounds as well.

F. War in the Balkans- This occurred in Yugoslavia following its breakup.

    1. Breakup of Yugoslavia- Democracy did not follow suit to all its republics. Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia and Slovenia went democratic while Serbia and Montenegro remained socialist. 

        a. 1990 Elections- Tension mounted as Serbia held control of the nations capital (Belgrade) and fiercely resisted the nomination of a Croat for President.  In June 1991, Slovenia and Croatia declared their independence from the nation.

    2. Fighting in Croatia (vs. Serbian's)- Fighting broke out between the Croat army and the ethnic Serbs in Croatia who refused to be under Croat rule.  Serbia and Montenegro supplied troops tot he region for help.  In 1992, United Nations peacekeepers patrolled the border of Serb and Croat held areas. 

    3. Bosnia-Herzegovina- In the Fall of 1991, Macedonia declared its independence.  In March of 1992, most of the Muslim population and the ethnic Croats in still another republic- Bosnia-Herzegovina- voted for independence from Serb-controlled Yugoslavia.  Fighting broke out among ethnic Serbs in Bosnia-Herzegovina and the rest of the population.  By the time the dispute had been settled (civil war), leaders of both sides met in Dayton, Ohio and reached a settlement that established a Bosnian State divided into two separate Croat-Muslim and Serb regions.

III Toward a European Union

A. Great Britain- Margaret Thatcher and John Major lead them into economic reforms

    1. Margaret Thatcher

    2.John Major

B. Ireland

    1. Terrorism

        a.  IRA

    2. Catholics vs. Protestants

C. France- de Gaulle leads into economic and artistic freedom the world knows to date

D. Germany - Reforms and unites (east and west) becoming a economic leader in the European Union and stable economy with in Europe (Kohl)

E. Mediterranean Europe - Civil unrest ( always a hot bed for trouble)

    1. Italy- Ruled by communists.

        a. Fear, terrorists, bombings, kidnappings

    2. Spain and Portugal- Democratic changes led this nation to ease up on its colonies and become involved with the European community.

        a. Ports

        b. 1992 Olympics- Showcase

    3. Greece- Suffered economic disarray and disputes over Cyprus.

F. A United Europe

    1. European Union

    2. Global interdependency

    3. Trading bloc

    4. Travel and Citizenship

IV Global Interdependence

A. World Trade- United States, Asia's Pacific Rim, European Union

    1. Economies and tariffs/trade restrictions

    2. Politics

B. Developing Nations- Third world nations (non-industrialized with tremendous poverty gap)

    1. Building Strong Economies

        a. Single economic markets (Domestic goods- lack trade)

        b. World Bank and International Monetary Fund

    2.  The World Debt Crisis- Africa and South America

C. Population Growth

    1. Natural resources

    2. Consumption and waste (First vs. Third world nations)

    3. Population control and planning

D. The Environment

    1.  Land and Water- Pesticides, overgrazing, deforestation, pollution, industrial wastes and sewage are cause of disease and decay.

    2. Environmental Awareness

        a. Environmental Protection Agency

        b. Rainforest's

        c. Zoological foundations

E. The Technological Revolution

    1. The Information Superhighway

        a. Computers, Internet, Business world and Machines

    2. Space Exploration  (Coming out of the Cold War)

        a. NASA- Moon landing, Shuttle missions, Mir Space Station, Satellites (for Defense and Communications)

    3. Medical Advances- Lasers, Imagine units, Surgical advancements, DNA

F. The Global Culture- Entertainment, Material possession, Music, Human Rights issues