English And American Revolutions
I. Civil War
A. Opposition to the Crown
1. King and Parliament- James inherits the throne and although an educated man is a poor ruler and creates havoc with that of his people and Parliament.
2. Problems with Parliament- James consistently asked for more money (government advisors and monarch luxuries). Parliament would not give him much of the funding he asked for and therefore began selling nobility (titles).
3. Religion and the Monarchy- Puritans vs. Catholics
B. Charles Inherits the Throne- Upon James I death, Charles inherits
the throne. Charles opposed the Puritans and believed in the divine right
theory. He forcibly asked Parliament to give money to fight a war with Spain.
When they gave little money to his cause, he dissolved the Parliament. After the
fighting settled Charles was forced to signed the Petition of Right. This had
four main parts: 1. King is forbidden to collect taxes with out Parliaments
consent 2. King can not falsely imprison citizens 3. Troops must have consent of
landowner to occupy housing on that land 4. King can not declare martial law
with out formal declarations of war
C. Beginnings of the Civil War- After the absolving of Charles first Parliament, he was forced to create a new Parliament (largely Puritans) who would meet for the next twenty years. Their sole purpose was to decrease the role of the King in England?s society. They abolished special courts that would imprison royal opponents. They ended all forms of illegal taxation and jailed and later executed Archbishop Laud (Catholic). Under their tenure though, Ireland still refused Puritanism. They would remain Catholic in its virtual entirety.
D. The English Civil War- Cavaliers (Royalists) vs. Roundheads (Puritans)
E. A New Government- A new Commonwealth (governed by direct democracy) was formed following the civil war. Although the new government included a King/Queen, their power never would be absolute again.
II. A King Returns to the Throne
A. The Merry Monarch- Upon Charles II return to power the people of England felt elation after the long-term rule of the hard line Puritans. This new house was the House of Stuart (Restoration phase). Charles II was into partying, games and conversation, hence the nickname "The Merry Monarch."
1. Dealing with Religious Questions- Charles II accepted the Church of England, although privately leaning towards Catholicism. A new parliament was created (Royalists). They passed the Clarendon Code. They made the Church of England the national religion.
2. Limiting the Power of the King- The new parliament though continued its limitations on the Monarchy (constitutional monarchy). This new found government was comprised of such documents as the Magna Carta, Petition of Right and other laws and customs.
3. Establishing Political Parties- Since Charles II had no legitimate children there were questions as to who would succeed him to the throne. James II who was Charles II brother was in line. James II was a hard line Catholic and feared by the Parliament. Those who wanted to exclude James from being King were seen as the "Whigs." Those who defended the monarchy were known as the "Tories."
B. Bloodless Revolt- When Charles II did die, his brother James II did become King. He wanted absolute power. He would later appoint Catholics to prominent government positions.
1. Glorious Revolution- Many simply waited for James II to die himself, knowing that his daughter, a Protestant, Mary would succeed him as Queen. James would have a male born child with a second wife. That would spoil Mary's ascension to power. Whig and Tory party leader would entertain the offer of Mary's husband William to invade and capture the Crown. He would be successful and William and Mary came to power; leaving James in exile in France.
2. New Limits on Royal Power- William and Mary would rule on behalf of Parliament. The Parliament would make additional laws limiting power of the Crown. They would include in a Bill of Rights that the King could not raise taxes without Parliaments approval, could not suspend laws and that it is free to debate social issues in Parliament. The Bill of Rights also guaranteed a fair and speedy trial of the accused. It outlawed cruel and unusual punishment. It also created an appeal system.
C. Parliament and the Crown
1. Succession and the Union- Parliament created a Royal line of succession.
2. Political Parties and the Cabinet
III. Road to Revolt
A. Britain's American Empire- The colonist were generally left alone to do what they wished with the noted exception of trade. That was closely monitored and regulated. It was a way of making money for the government (tariffs).
B. Colonial Political Power- As people grew economically and socially they began to take interest in their surroundings (i.e.: government). They did not yet have voting rights in Parliament, yet had to pay taxes to their host nation. They would often struggle with the Royal Governors (over money).
C. Tightening Colonial Controls- Both France and England knew the fruits of their distant colonies and wanted maintain a strangle hold on their assets and taxable wealth. By the close of 1760, England had virtually taken all of France's North American territory. England had hoped to open this land to settlers and those who wanted a new life in the America's. They also raised taxes.
D. Colonial Protests- "Taxation with out representation" was the cry by the colonist as they fought for their rights with England. They began to boycott all taxable goods and harvesting many of their own crops and goods (black market).
1. Unrest in Boston- Taxes. Taxes. And more taxes. On all tradable goods (especially mercantile goods).
2. The First Continental Congress- This was a joint meeting of representatives in all the colonies to put a stop to that of England's reign.
IV. A War for Independence
A. Moving Toward Separation
1. A Call to Part
a. Common Sense (Paine)
2. The Declaration of Independence (Jefferson)
B. The War for Independence- Revolution
1. Fighting the War
C. Forming a New Government
1. The Articles of Confederation- Failed/Flawed
2. A New Constitution- Federal System, Bill of Rights
V. Peace in Europe
A. The Congress of Vienna- Under the leadership of Prince Klemens von Metternich
1. Redrawing the Map- restore boundaries to that prior to French Revolution
2. Restoring the Monarchies- and align with the Pope (divine right theory)
B. Forces Changing Europe
1. Alliances- Reactionaries (royalists) vs. Liberalism (reformers)
a. Quadruple alliance- prevent major threats of war (Britain, Prussia, Russia and Austria)
b. Buffer states created to prevent the emotional hotbed in France to erupt again
c. Holy Alliance
2. Concert Of Europe- Congress of Vienna and the Pope