War Of 1812
I. Breakdown of Peaceful Coercion
A. America dropped its embargo with France, only to be tricked by Napolean and losing more ships.
B. Britain, stung by food shortages and an economic recession due to lack of cotton for mills, attempted to make concessions in June 1812.
C. British support of Shawnee Confederation led by Tecumseh and the Prophet proved at battle of Tippecanoe (1811).
D. War Hawks call for war. Issues:
1) Land hunger
2) British impressments
3) Indian atrocities
E. Despite pleas from New England to remain calm, Madison asked Congress for a war declaration on June 18, 1812.
II. Military Campaigns of 1812-13
A. Three-pronged attack of Canada failed due to American incompetence.
B. US burn York (now Toronto), leading to later British burning of Washington, D.C.
C. Naval victories on Lake Erie and Lake Champlain prevented British counterattack.
D. Sea action
1) American privateers damaged British shipping in early months
2) British navy overwhelmed US ships and blockaded coast from New England to Georgia.
III. War's Conclusion
A. Attack on Washington--4000 British troops burn White House, other buildings.
B. Napolean abdicates in April 1814, leaving America alone to fight the British.
C. At Treaty of Ghent, American and British negotiators agree to end fighting on December 24, 1814
D. British invade New Orleans, only to be defeated by American troops under Andrew Jackson's command in January 1815
|Title:||"U.S. History Resources" (Directory)|
|Author:||Feldmeth, Greg D.|
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