I. Jeffersonian Democracy
A. Until masses could be educated, political rule needed to be entrusted to agrarian aristocracy.
B. Jefferson's election in 1800 shifted regional power to South and West from mercantile aristocracy of Northeast
C. Jefferson's views:
1) Faith in the perfectibility of man
2) Insistence on strong local governments
3) Each generation should remake its laws to stimulate democracy
II. Domestic Problems
A. Midnight judges & judicial review
1. Marbury and 15 other Federalist judges were appointed as Adams' term expired.
2. John Marshall rejected their claim, contending that the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional.
a) Victory for DRs--Federalists ousted
b) Victory for Federalists--greatly expanded power of Supreme Court by establishing precedent of court ruling laws unconstitutional.
B. Burr Conspiracy
1. Federalists seek his election as New York governor to attempt secession from Union. Hamilton opposes plan.
2. Aaron Burr kills Hamilton in duel
3. Burr moves west to plan western nation with British help
4. Marshall found Burr not guilty of treason.
III. Foreign Problems
A. Louisiana Purchase
1. France acquires Louisiana from Spain in 1800.
2. Jefferson sent agents in Paris to purchase New Orleans.
3. Napolean offers entire territory for $15 million
4. Jefferson thus violated his belief in strict construction of Constitution by using necessary and proper clause.
5. Two expeditions sent out to explore new land:
a) Lewis & Clark (1804-6) ascended Missouri to source, then crossed the Rockies to the Pacific.
b) Zebulon Pike (1805) explored headwaters of Mississippi and southern Rocky Mountains.
B. Conflict over neutral rights
1. British and French ships seized American cargoes and sailors
2. Jefferson responded with Embargo Act which prohibited all American trade with foreign ports
a) Greatly harmed American shipping
b) Jefferson became object of hate in New England
3. Non-intercourse Act replaced Embargo Act
a) Reopened trade with all nations except England and France
b) Provided for re-opening of trade with England and France if interference ended
C. Western demands for war
1. Reasons for western pressure
a) Depression in Ohio Valley
b) Desire for Canadian land
i) Future fur-trading
ii) Region needed for expansion of settlers
iii) Pawn to trade with England to force end of attacks on shipping
c) Indian warfare with confederation organized by Tecumseh. Battle of Tippecanoe convinced war hawks of British assistance to Indians.
|Title:||"U.S. History Resources" (Directory)|
|Author:||Feldmeth, Greg D.|
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