Rise Of Political Parties

I. Origins

A. Dangers of factions mentioned by Madison in Federalist #10 and Washington’s warning about the "baneful effects of the spirit of party"

B. Nevertheless, parties became necessary in order to get things done in government, e.g., Hamilton’s financial plan and support for Jefferson’s Louisiana Purchase. (Necessity of an institution that unifies government in order to overcome the systems of separation of powers and checks and balances that divide government.)

C. Historical development:

1. Federalists and Anti-Federalists

2. Democratic-Republicans (Jeffersonians) v. Federalists (Hamiltonians)

3. Rise of the Democratic Party under Jackson, development of Republican Party in 1850’s

4. Democrats and Republicans in post-Civil War era (include realigning election of 1896)

aa. FDR’s grand coalition (include realigning election of 1932): South, blue collar, minorities, farmers, unemployed middle class

bb. Republican coalitions: Nixon through Reagan (include possible realignment of the 1980’and 1990’s). Won back white, suburban middle class and Southern white Protestants.


II. Areas of party strength

A. South

1. Traditionally "solid South" has become increasingly Republican in not only presidential elections, but congressional elections as well.

2. Success of Clinton in recapturing parts of South

B. Great Plains: Republican strength

C. Rocky Mountains: Republican strength

D. Great Lakes: Democratic strength

E. New England : Democratic (Republican in past)

F. Swing States